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The torsion spring door is below large stress, and therefore, just one wrong move may perhaps even turn out to be fatal for you. If you are looking for a non permanent fix for your garage gate, you can disconnect the opener from the doorway, by pulling on the crimson string that you can see on the side of the doorway. This way you can function the doorway manually. Even so, be thorough, mainly because if the difficulty lies in the spring of the doorway, it could possibly drop quickly on you. Verify all the loose hardware to make confident that nothing at all is out of put.

Also test the springs and see if they are hooked on to the ideal area. If, when carrying out the garage doorway repair you deal with any issue because of to the tension in the springs, attempt to regulate them by hooking them to the up coming notch. This will make it much easier for you to work.

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From Sinnott, E. C, and Dobzhansky, T. Principles of genetics. New York: McGraw-Hill, It has already been observed that each chromosome consists of a chain of beadlike particles, called genes. For this reason the study of heredity has been called genetics. These genes are the real units of heredity.

Each chromosome of a pair carries the same number of genes arranged in similar linear sequence regardless of the fact that one may have come from the paternal and the other from the maternal parent. Accordingly, if we were to place a pair of chromosomes side by side, a certain gene of the first chromosome would be paired with the corresponding gene of the second. Such paired genes govern various characteristics of the individual.

One pair may determine eye color, for example, while others govern hair texture, skin coloring, and other attributes. The two genes of a pair may be quite different, however. One may be the factor for brown eyes while the other promotes blue eyes, or one may be a gene for straight hair while its mate is for curly hair. If the two genes of a pair are identical, they are designated as homozygous, or " purebred," for the characteristics governed; if they differ, they are heterozygous , hybrid, or, in common parlance, "mongrel.

Dominance -Recessiveness. Quite frequently an individual is heterozygous for several characteristics. He may, for example, inherit a gene for brown eyes and a gene for blue eyes. What, then, will be his eye color? To answer this we must introduce the concepts of dominance and recessiveness.

For many characteristics, including eye color, one of the paired genes exerts greater influence than the other. The one with the greater influence is called a dominant gene; the other, a recessive. In the case of eye color, the gene for brown is always dominant over the gene for blue.

This means that, whenever both genes are present, the gene for brown will suppress the effect of the gene for blue and the individual will be brown-eyed. The recessive gene does not disappear, however. It merely fails to express itself in visible form in this individual. It may be transmitted again to the next generation. Since such transmission is essentially the same for other characteristics more important to us than eye color, let us carry the illustration further. Geneticists represent dominant genes by capital letters and recessive genes by small letters. Since the gene for brown eyes is invariably dominant over the gene for blue, let us designate the gene for brown B and the gene for blue b.

Now, an individual may inherit a dominant gene from each parent and thus have a homozygous dominant combination, BB; he may receive a dominant gene from one parent and a recessive from the other, thereby achieving a heterozygous combination, Bb; or lastly he may inherit recessives from both parents and have a homozygous recessive combination, bb. Since the gene for brown suppresses the effect of the gene for blue, both BB and Bb individuals will be brown-eyed and only the homozygous recessive, bb, will be blue-eyed.

Although both BB and Bb combinations produce brown eyes, it is clear that the genetic components differ. The homozygous BB can transmit only a dominant gene, B, to his offspring. The heterozygous Bb individual, on the other hand, can transmit either a dominant gene, B, or a recessive gene 6, to his children. If this idea is followed a little further, it will be seen that all children of the BB individual will be brown-eyed regardless of their mother's eye color.

Prediction of eye color of Bb's children becomes more complicated, however. Let us see what happens if he marries a girl who is also heterozygous for eye color. In genetics, the symbol cf is used to represent the male parent and 9 to designate the female parent. In our example, both are heterozygous with respect to eye color, thus:.

By simple algebraic multiplication, we find that the chance is 1 out of 4 that any child of these parents will inherit two dominant genes, BB; chances are 2 out of 4 that any child will have one dominant and one recessive gene, Bb; and the chance is 1 out of 4 that any child will have two recessive genes, bb. If we now recall that brown suppresses the effect of blue, it becomes clear that both the 1 BB and the 2 Bb children will be brown-eyed. We might therefore conclude that the chances are 3 to 4 that children of these heterozygous parents will be brown-eyed, like their parents.

Nevertheless, it is important to note that although the odds are against it there is 1 chance in 4 that children will inherit a homozygous recessive gene combination, bb, and hence be blue-eyed. Even though no blue eyes appear in this generation, some of the children are likely to carry the gene for blue eyes in heterozygous combination, and this hidden gene may be passed along from one generation to the next to reappear in grandchildren or great-grandchildren who fail to understand it because in their lifetime no one in the family ever had blue eyes.

Accordingly, we see that genes for certain characteristics may express themselves in every generation or may be carried as heterozygous recessives, remaining hidden for many years to reappear several generations later. Examples of dominant genes are numerous — skin and hair coloring and texture, height, etc. Recessive genes underlie such conditions as albinism absence of pigmentation in skin and hair , juvenile amaurotic idiocy, muscle atrophy, color blindness, and hemophilia. Sometimes a gene may have a recessive effect on one characteristic and a dominant effect on another.

In the ordinary house mouse, for instance, one gene is known to have a recessive influence on viability, for all homozygotes die before birth, and a dominant effect on coat color which in the presence of this gene becomes yellow instead of the usual gray. Eugenicists have long advocated the improvement of the human race by eliminating undesirable genes from the population through various means such as sterilization.

The difficulty is easily seen, however. Even though enforced selective mating were possible and legal among human beings, recessive genes might remain hidden for generations only to express themselves unexpectedly a century later. Nature eliminates many of the undesirable characteristics without human intervention, for many such genes are lethal and the carrier dies before sexual maturation.

For nonlethal recessive genes, eugenics would appear to offer no simple solution. Multiple Factors. The task of the geneticist would be relatively elementary if heredity depended on individual genes. In order to clarify principles in this brief discussion, we have oversimplified.

Few, if any, human genes act independently. Although in lower animals certain characteristics seem to be determined by single or few genes, most human characteristics such as eye or hair color, blood type, and body build are determined by a large number of interacting genes.

In many instances this is also true of the lower animals. A seemingly simple characteristic such as the eye color of the fruit fly, for example, has been shown to depend on the interaction of about 50 separate genes. Influence of Environment on Gene Action. Although genes play an important role in determining the characteristics of the individual, their action depends on a constant environment.

Should changes occur in either prenatal or postnatal environment, the course of development may be drastically altered. It has been demonstrated, for instance, that fruit flies hatched under conditions of low temperature may develop additional legs, while controls hatched in the usual warm temperatures have a normal number of legs Jennings, Another interesting illustration has been provided by Stockard , who found that the larvae of a certain fish which normally had two eyes developed only one eye if subjected to high concentrations of magnesium salts in the sea water in which they lived.

Erickson reported that children whose mothers had German measles during pregnancy were prone to malformations of ears, eyes, and heart. These are only a few of many available examples. Nevertheless, they are sufficient to show that the kind of organism which will develop depends not only on genes but also on the nature of the environment in which the genes exert their influences.

Genes and Enzymes. For many years investigators have wondered just how the genes determine hereditary characteristics. Research has recently begun to point toward the action of genes on the various enzyme systems of the body see Chapter 4 for discussion of the nature of enzymes. Enzymes are catalysts which affect the rate of various chemical reactions in the body but undergo no change themselves. Most of the work on gene-enzyme relationships began with the studies of Beadle and Tatum , who worked with the common bread mold. It is known that bread mold makes one of its vitamins, thiamin, from two simple compounds and that a specific enzyme is required to accomplish this synthesis.

It was demonstrated that this enzyme is produced by a gene which these investigators were able to locate within the chromosome. When the gene was inactivated by X-ray bombardment, the enzyme was also inactivated and the bread mold could no longer make its own thiamin. Similar relationships between a specific gene and a specific enzyme have been found in several other cases in both plants and animals. This suggested the hypothesis that genes may be considered as templates or molds of various shapes that serve to stamp out enzymes of a particular kind Beadle, For our purposes, the important thing is to note that the gene can determine the presence or absence of an enzyme as well as its particular nature and thus, through the enzyme system, can affect the rate of metabolic activities of the body and hence behavior.

Enzymes and Behavior. Of late years, accumulating evidence has indicated that absent or malfunctioning enzyme systems influence behavior. For example, in one investigation it was noted that disturbed enzyme functioning resulted in a psychotic condition characterized by fears, delusions, and hallucinations. When normal enzyme action was restored, the symptoms promptly disappeared see Chapter 4 for a fuller treatment of this topic.

Diagram illustrating the chain of processes connecting the most immediate effects of a gene with the eventual effect on behavior. After Wright. Modified from Sinnott, E. One of the most interesting examples comes from study of a type of mental deficiency known by the elaborate name of phenylpyruvic oligophrenia. It is well known that, during the course of normal metabolism, phenylpyruvic acid is produced. With the help of a specific enzyme, this acid is reduced to carbon dioxide and water. It is an interesting fact that people whose urine contains phenylpyruvic acid are invariably feebleminded.

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This type of mental deficiency is rare in medical history, accounting for approximately 0. It is thought that the accumulation of phenylpynrvic acid in the body inhibits one of the enzymes involved in neural activity and therefore lowers the level of neural and hence mental functioning. In our present context, the most important point is that phenylpyruvic oligophrenia is an inherited disease transmitted by a single recessive gene Jervis, From the above examples it becomes evident that certain effects of genes on behavior are mediated by enzymes. Figure 5 illustrates various steps in this relationship, from the most immediate effects of genes to their more remote influence on behavior.

It is important to note that, although some of the effects of genes may be mediated by enzymes, this is not the only way in which they influence behavior. An individual's sex is determined at the time of fertilization. Not long after the discovery that chromosomes occurred in pairs, an exception was also found to this general rule, and the exception led to a theory of sex determination.

Human males and females alike have 24 pairs of chromosomes. Of these, 23 pairs are similar in both sexes. Since the two chromosomes comprising each pair are also alike, for convenience we shall call them AA chromosomes. The twenty-fourth pair, however, differs in male and female. It is therefore safe to assume that sex is determined by this last and different pair. In females, the two chromosomes comprising this pair are matched, so we shall call them XX; in males, the two chromosomes differ, and we shall call them XY.

As has already been observed, meiosis divides all chromosomes. Since the probability of one or another sperm f ertilizing the ovum depends on chance alone, any child can be said to have a 50 per cent chance of being a girl and an equal chance of becoming a boy. Similarly, roughly one-half of all children will be male and roughly onehalf will be female. Figure 6 schematically illustrates sex determination. The reason is not definitely known. Determination of sex.

Women and men. New York: Harcourty Brace, Predicting Sex. The sex of an expected child is always a good topic for conversation and wishful thinking. Dozens of superstitions regarding methods of predicting sex are bandied about — for example, "If conception occurs soon after menstruation, the child will be a girl," or, "If the groom goes to bed on his wedding night with his shoes on, his children will be boys. Which sperm fertilizes the ovum depends entirely on chance. In recent years attempts have been made to predict sex by X-raying the bones of the fetus on the premise that girls 7 bones ossify sooner than boys bones.

Other attempts have been made by counting fetal heartbeat. However, neither X-ray nor heart-rate tests are very reliable because of the great individual differences even at this early stage of development. Very recently a new technique — the saliva test — has been reported. Its proponents claim almost perfect accuracy in prediction. Whether the claim will be verified remains to be seen. Sex-linked Traits. Every chromosome contains many genes. This is true also of the sex chromosomes. Both X and Y chromosomes transmit genes which influence other characteristics apart from sex.

In view of the peculiarity of transmission of X and Y chromosomes, we may therefore anticipate that certain genes will influence one sex more than the other. Characteristics governed by such genes are called sex-linked traits. Of approximately 20 sex-linked traits known in man, the 2 which have been most extensively studied are color blindness and hemophilia. Color blindness is more frequent in boys, occurring in about 8 per cent of all American males and in 0. It is an eye defect which interferes with color vision and discrimination.

Red-green color blindness is most common. Hemophilia, often known as bleeder's disease, is another hereditary defect, preventing coagulation of the blood in the presence of air. Even a small cut may result in fatal hemorrhage. This condition is peculiar to males. Genes for both color blindness and hemophilia are sex-linked recessives. Well over a century ago, Lamarck postulated a thesis which subsequently became known as "the inheritance of acquired characteristics. Because it fed on the leaves of trees, it stretched its neck to reach higher and higher branches, and as a result of such prolonged stretching the neck increased in length.

This length increment was inherited by its offspring. As generation succeeded generation, inch by inch was added to neck length until stretching became unnecessary. Thus Lamarck's thesis revolved around the idea that where continuous striving was necessary to adapt to the environment permanent physical changes resulted, and these changes became hereditary.

We know now that this is not the true reason for their dark color. Alterations in body cells may follow environmental changes. Muscles may become highly developed as a result of exercise, for instance, or dietary deficiencies may stunt growth. However, such changes cannot be transmitted to offspring, because they are limited to body cells and do not affect the germ or reproductive cells.

Collapse of Lamarck's thesis left us without a substitute for many years. Darwin's theory of evolution caused scientists to continue their search for a possible method of accounting for phylogenesis, however, and eventually a theory supported by more evidence emerged. This new theory centered around the concept of mutations, defined as "inherited bodily changes brought about by alterations of chromosomes and genes" Munn, Spontaneous Mutations.

Unlike the body cells, germ cells are relatively immune to environmental changes. Only rarely do we find "spontaneous" alterations in germ-cell structure resulting in the sudden appearance of new characteristics. These changes, when they do occur, are inherited by the offspring of affected parents.


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Morgan and his coworkers observed such spontaneous alterations or mutations in roughly 1 out of every 5, to 10, fruit flies bred in their laboratory. These mutations resulted in such characteristics as absence of wings or eyes, unusual wing or eye formations, and changes in bristles. Other striking examples of mutants are black sheep, albino rats, and guinea pigs.

These mutants breed true; their offspring continue to be like them. It has been claimed that certain human anomalies such as abnormalities of hands and feet, hair and skin color, or head shape are the results of mutations see Davenport, Morgan also observed that X-ray bombardment speeded up mutation frequency about times.

The X-ray-induced mutations were of the same kind as those which occurred spontaneously. Recent research has further demonstrated that such factors as temperature and chemicals can increase mutation rates. At the present time this fine of research is being actively pursued, and new facts emerge frequently. Chromosome and Gene Mutations. Both chromosomes and genes may mutate. We get a clue to the method by which chromosome mutations may occur when we recall that during the processes of meiosis and mitosis chromosomes divide, regroup, split, and go through various other maneuvers.

It may happen that paired chromosomes fail to separate, that a chromosome breaks and only a part of it goes to the " correct " cell, or that either a chromosome or a gene fails to make an accurate "carbon copy" of itself. We need not concern ourselves with all these possible accidents. For our purposes it is sufficient to understand that such accidents do happen and that when they occur at these early stages " behind the germ fine," the changed characteristics are transmitted to future generations.

Chromosome mutations cannot account for all hereditary changes. More probably we must look to the gene for explanation, and so far we know little about gene mutations. It is thought that they involve chemical changes within the gene itself. The precise relationships, however, can be clarified only by future research. It is generally accepted that such physical characteristics as hair and eye color, body build, and blood type are genetically determined. The problem becomes more difficult when we deal with psychological characteristics such as intelligence, emotionality, or aggressiveness.

Because it is difficult to control the many variables in human studies, the best experimental work has been done on animals. Investigators have followed two main methods: 1 selective breeding and 2 observing psychological traits in different strains, breeds, or species. One or two examples of each will be given. Selective Breeding. Selective breeding, as defined by Hall , " consists of mating animals that display the desired traits and of selecting for breeding from among their offspring those that express the trait.

If the trait is regulated by heredity, continued selection for a number of generations in a uniform environment will result in a strain that breeds more or less true for the character under study. Learning Ability. The classic experiment in this field is Tryon's , Tryon describes his procedure as follows:. An experiment was begun in that had as its purpose the establishment by selective breeding of a pure line of maze-bright and a pure line of maze-dull rats. Each animal was run nineteen trials through a seventeen-blind T maze. His score was the total number of entrances into blind alleys.

The breeding schedule consisted in mating together the brightest rat within each of the brightest litters, the dullest within each of the dullest. Rigorous environmental controls were effected 1 by instituting standard procedure of animal care and breeding, 2 by using an automatic mechanical device for delivering the animals into the maze without handling, and 3 by employing an electrical recorder for the scoring of each rat's maze run. These controls have remained constant for eleven years.

Selective breeding has continued for eighteen generations [, p. He began with unselected rats. His results for the initial test of mazelearning ability and for those of eight successive generations are shown in Fig. The scores of the original unselected rats approximate a rough normal-curve distribution. Greater scattering appears in the scores of the second generation; by the seventh and eighth generations they form two. Effects of selective breeding on individual differences in learning ability of rats.

After Tryorij R. Individual differences. Moss Ed. New York: Prentice-Hall, Thus the bright rats breed bright rats, and the dull ones breed dull offspring. No further changes were observed from the eighth to the eighteenth generations. The experiment indicates that maze-learning ability is inherited. A similar method of selective breeding has been used to appraise the role of heredity in voluntary activity of rats Rundquist, The animals were placed in a revolving drum, and the number of revolutions of the drum served as a criterion of high or low activity level.

Highly active rats were paired with others showing high activity, while lowactivity animals were paired with similar ones for several generations. Like Tryon, this investigator was able to establish a strain which bred true for high activity rate and another which bred true for low activity level. He states: "The consistency within some litters of the emotional and nonemotional strains may be illustrated by two examples of parent-child resemblances. Two emotional F 9 rats with scores of 10 and 12 had a litter whose nine scores were 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 11, 11 and Two nonemotional F 9 rats with scores of and had a litter of six whose scores were 0, 0, 0, 0, 1 and 1.

While these three experiments indicate that maze-learning ability, voluntary activity, and emotionality all have large hereditary components, it should be remembered that these rats were reared and tested in constant environments. We cannot predict the role of heredity when environmental variables are not controlled. This will become clear in later chapters when the nature-nurture experiments performed with children are discussed. Study of Different Strains. A strain may be considered as "a group of individuals of a species that have a common lineage resulting from either natural or artificial selection and inbreeding" Hall, Over a number of generations, close inbreeding results in a pure strain which breeds true for inherited traits unless mutations occur.

Thus by a pure strain we mean homozygous individuals with BB or bb gene combinations as opposed to the heterozygous Bb of mongrel subjects. As we have observed, such homozygous individuals will show the effects of either dominant or recessive genes regardless of whether they are beneficial or deleterious characteristics. Wildness and Tameness, Several investigators have applied this knowledge to observation of such temperamental traits as wildness or tameness of certain animals Yerkes, ; Stone, ; Dawson, ; among others.

It was found that wild strains bred true for wildness and tame strains for tameness in both rats and mice. In one study a number of wild gray Norway rats were captured and their offspring reared in cages similar to those used to rear albino rats Farris and Yeakel, Both the wild and tame rats bred true; the descendants of the wild gray Norway rats remained wild; offspring of the albinos remained tame. Since the two strains bred true for wildness and tameness, it is clear that the difference has a genetic basis. Of recent years many psychologists and psychiatrists have supported what is known as the frustration-aggression hypothesis.

A child who is thwarted in his activities, for example, allegedly responds aggressively by striking his mother, kicking the furniture, breaking into a temper tantrum, or other such behavior. The social scientists especially are prone to believe that men fight because they have been brought up in a tradition favoring war and not because of inherent pugnacity. An inter. One strain had been selectively bred to develop fearfulness emotionality and the other to develop fearlessness nonemotionality.

Two rats were placed together in a cage for 5-min. The resulting scores are extremely interesting. The 15 rats of the fearless strain initiated attacks as compared with 68 begun by the fearful rats. The severity of attacks by the fearless animals was roughly twice as great as the severity of attacks initiated by the fearful rats. Further support for this finding that aggressiveness may have a genetic basis is given in a study by Ginsburg and Allee These investigators studied the fighting behavior of three strains of mice, pairing each mouse with every other mouse.

Of the three strains — black, agouti, and albino — the black mice won the greatest number of fights, the agoutis came second, and the albinos usually lost. To eliminate the possibility that rearing influenced fighting ability, the investigators next split a litter of blacks and a litter of albinos so that some blacks were reared by an albino foster mother and some albinos in a black foster home. On testing the foster children, it was found that the blacks continued to be superior in fighting ability regardless of where they had been reared, while the albinos remained inferior.

Human Studies. Investigators of the heredity-environment problem, often called the nature-nurture controversy, have compared identical twins with fraternal twins or other siblings. Since such studies are scattered throughout the text in appropriate chapters, little need be said about them at this point. To approach this from another angle, it might be said that the genetic components of identical twins are similar, while those of fraternal twins or siblings differ; accordingly, a comparison of certain measurements for identical twins, fraternal twins, and siblings by means of correlation techniques would yield higher correlation coeffi.

This has proved to be true. Although these correlation coefficients are sufficiently high to point to some hereditary components in intelligence, the difference between identi. Life-long similarities of the D identical twins at ages 5, 20, 55, and Twin studies on senescence. PsychiaL, , , By permission of the authors and the American Psychiatric Association. The various factors which complicate interpretation of such correlation studies will be discussed later.


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Here the student is merely cautioned not to jump to conclusions, for there are complicating factors. So far as we know at present there is no "gene for intelligence," although it has been postulated by some investigators. Many prefer to think that what we call intelligence depends on the interaction of many gene-sponsored processes — sensory, neural, and glandular — about which we are still in the dark. Evidence is available to show that, whatever their origins, the similarities of identical twins tend to persist throughout life Kallmann and Sander, 1 Figure 8 shows the striking similarities between identical twins at the ages of 5, 20, 55, and 86 years.

These twins remain as indistinguishable in old age as they were during childhood and maturity. Striking physical likenesses persist despite the varied influences of city vs. Kallmann and Sander cite many cases in which the same ailments occurred at approximately the same time of life in both twins; in which twin sisters both developed essentially similar senile psychoses despite significant differences in social and mental histories; and in which twins both became blind or deaf during the same month, sustained massive cerebral hemorrhages on the same day, and finally died within a few days of each other.

Now that we have learned something about the genetic foundations of behavior, let us go on to a discussion of the nervous system, the great integrator which coordinates the various body responses into one unified whole. Perhaps no structural system is so important to behavior, for through its extensive connections with all parts of the body the nervous system is able to integrate various excitations coming from the receptors and to direct them to appropriate response organs, such as the muscles and glands.

This chapter first traces the phylogenetic development of the nervous system, showing how it gradually becomes more and more complicated in its interconnections and finally reaches a climax in the cerebral cortex of man. This culmination of neural development is reflected in man's ability to recall past experiences, to reason, to plan ahead, and to communicate his thoughts through speech.

The second part of the chapter deals with ontogenetic changes, tracing the course of neural development and subsequent decline from the prenatal period to senescence. Such a study of ontogenetic changes is helpful to an understanding of the growth and later decline of such psychological processes as learning, memory, intelligence, and emotions. The nervous system consists of specialized conduction lines whose main function is to transmit the effects of stimulation from the receptors to the effectors, or response organs.

In the simple one-celled protozoa, the best example of which is the amoeba, these effects are mediated by the entire body and no one part of the organism is specialized for either the reception or transmission of stimuli or for effecting any response. However, in the porifera, or sponges — the simplest of the multicellular organisms — an advance may be seen in the formation of muscle cells which will contract when stimulated directly.

This is shown in Fig. No nervous system is present at this early stage. Development of Nerve Net. Coelenterates such as the hydra, medusa, and jellyfish show a further advance, for here certain cells differentiate to become specialized as receptors of external stimuli. These receptor cells receive stimuli and transmit them directly to the underlying muscles by means of elongated branches, called neurites Fig.

In certain coelenterates an even more important advance may be seen in the extensive network of nerve fibers which link receptor to effector cells. With such a neural arrangement, stimulation of one receptor cell spreads in all directions throughout the net, thus influencing a great many effectors and producing a generalized response. Although the nerve net functions to bring together various parts of the body, its conduction is diffuse and not channelized through specific pathways as in the " synaptic nervous system" of higher forms.

Stages in the evolution of the receptor-connector-effector system. A Stage at which a single cell performs the functions of both reception and contraction e. B Stage at which a specialized receptor cell and a specialized contractile cell are directly connected e. C Stage at which specialized conduction tissue intervenes e. After Parker and Hertwig. From Maier, N. Principles of animal psychology. Development of Axial Arrangement. Following the development of the nerve net, two major steps have occurred in neural evolution.

First, the nerve net gradually disappeared to be replaced by structurally separate units, called neurons, capable of acting independently of each other. This development made it possible to elicit localized responses to localized stimuli, for example, the blinking of an eyelid following a puff of air or the withdrawal of a finger from a candle flame.

The second major step was the gathering of neural fibers into one part of the body. Most important of these neural assemblings is the axial arrangement, in which the nerve fibers are strung out throughout the length of the body from head to tail. Such an axial arrangement is found in all higher organisms. The rudiments of an axial arrangement, seen inflatworms, is illustrated in Fig. Here two longitudinal nerve strands run through the length of the body to terminate in two large clusters of nerve cells, called ganglia, in the head region. These two head, or cephalic, ganglia are the precursors of the vertebrate brain.

Appearance of Reflex Arc, In annelids such as the earthworm the nervous system is considerably more organized. The two long nerve strands give place to a chain of paired ganglia extending throughout the length of the organism, each pair serving a segment of the body. The result is the long ladderlike arrangement shown in Fig. Each ganglion is connected with the skin and muscles of its particular body segment by two neurons, a sensory neuron which sends impulses from the periphery into the ganglion and a motor neuron sending impulses out from the ganglion to the peripheral structures.

Linking the two neurons in each ganglion is a third association, or connector, nerve fiber. Thus in the earthworm are found all the essentials of a reflex arc. Diagrams of the nervous system of the flatworm, annelid, arthropod, and vertebrate. The sympathetic nervous system is indicated by dotted lines. Through these neurons, each ganglion can control movements of its body segment. Furthermore, through a system of association fibers, ganglia serving each segment are interconnected so that movements in one part of the body can be brought into line with movements of other parts.

Development of the large head ganglia, which receive impulses from the lower parts and in turn relay impulses to lower segments, provides a mechanism for integrating movements of the organism as a whole. According to Herrick , the nervous system of the earthworm is a rough pattern for that found in vertebrates.

As we ascend the phylogenetic scale from the annelids, we note that paired ganglia come closer and closer together until, in such arthropods as the insects, a partial fusion down the central axis of the body occurs. Similarly, in the head region, a number of ganglia fuse to become one large cephalic ganglion, or " brain. Such a "brain" superimposes a certain coordination over various specific reactions; if it is destroyed, serious impairment in both speed and direction of locomotion follows. As we go from the highest invertebrates to the vertebrates, we find the segmented, ladderlike arrangement, through a process of fusion, replaced by a nonsegmented, continuous tube called a spinal cord Fig.

The posterior part of this cord undergoes relatively little further development. Its sole function is to conduct impulses upward or downward to and from the brain and to act as a center for reflex behavior. The anterior part of the cord changes considerably, however, enlarging and subdividing to form the various components of the brain. The grosser aspects of evolutionary changes of the brain are represented in Fig. Ascending from fishes through to mammals, the size and complexity of the brain gradually increases.

The structure which evidences greatest increase in size is the cerebral cortex. This is particularly noticeable in mammals. Below mammals, most of the cortex is concerned with sensory and motor functions. Ascending the mammalian scale, however, there is a gradual increase in the amount of cerebral cortex not given over to sensorimotor activities. This area is known as the association cortex. In rodents, approximately 10 per cent of the entire cortex is not dominated by sensorimotor functions; in the cat, roughly 30 per cent; in the monkey, 60 per cent; and, finally, in man, 85 per cent.

This is important because it means that man has considerably more cortical tissue free of sensory and motor tasks which can accordingly mediate such higher psychological processes as learning, thinking, and reasoning. Enlargement of the association cortex is achieved partly by growth in size of the brain and partly by a progressive increase in the amount of infolding of the cerebral cortex see Fig. Evolution of the vertebrate brain. All the brains are drawn to the same length to show detail in the smaller ones. C is the cerebrum and Cb the cerebellum.

Since the dogfish has no cerebrum, an arrow indicates comparable structures. The protruding orgaD in the extreme left of the lower brains is the smell brain. From Munrij N. For purposes of discussion, the human nervous system may be divided into two parts: 1 the central nervous system, consisting of brain and spinal cord, and 2 the peripheral nervous system, comprised of nerves which branch out from the central system. Before discussing these divisions, let us examine some of the microscopic aspects, for the nervous system is so complex that only by inspecting its elements can we hope to understand the functions of the whole.

Scattered among the nerve cells are great numbers of nonconducting, supporting structures called neuroglia, or glial cells, which give firmness to the neural network. Neurons show considerable variation in size and appearance in different parts of the nervous system. However, all have cell bodies which form the gray matter and branched extensions, or nerve fibers, which constitute the white matter.

Structure of Neurons. All neurons have a cell body, an axon, and a dendrite see Fig. As in the case of other cells, the cell body of the neuron consists of cytoplasm. Through the use of various stains, a number of different structures can be distinguished within this cytoplasm. The largest is the nucleus, a white, spherical-shaped body.

Streaming through. Diagram of a neuron. The axon is drawn out of proportion so as to illustrate its covering sheaths. Fundamentals of neurology. Philadelphia: Saunders, Also scattered throughout the cell body are bloblike masses which, under appropriate stains, appear striped, giving the cell a tigroid appearance. This is the Nissl substance. Whenever a cell is injured or fatigued, the Nissl substance undergoes extensive disintegration, or chromatolysis. There are also other structures within the cell body, but they need not concern us here.

Dendrites and Axons. Dendrites are the receiving end of the neuron. They conduct impulses toward the cell body and, as might be expected, are most numerous in regions easily excited by environmental stimuli. Several dendrites generally arise from one cell body. Axons, on the other hand, carry impulses away from the cell body. Usually only one axon leaves each cell, but there may be a number of side branches, or collateral fibers, given off near the cell body at right angles to the main axon. Myelin Sheath. Some distance from the cell body, many of the nerve fibers become enclosed in a sheath of whitish, fatty material called the myelin sheath see Fig.

It is this sheath which lends its white appearance to the nerves and accounts for the term " white matter. The time of myelinization is important, because it is believed that commencement of function coincides with myelinization. This will presently be discussed further.

Neuron Chains. So far, we have been concerned with the neuron per se. The nervous system, however, is made up of a great many neurons linked together in various ways to form intricate conducting pathways. These neurons are so arranged that the axon of one terminates on the cell body or dendrite of another in a junction called a synapse. The simplest functional arrangement of the neuron is the reflex arc. In its most elementary form it consists of two neurons synapsing in the central nervous system Fig.

The sensory, or afferent, neuron receives the stimulus and transmits it to the central nervous system where the motor, or efferent, neuron picks it up and relays it to muscles and glands. Twoneuron arcs are rare in the higher mammals, however. Nearly all arcs include a third neuron interpolated between the afferent and efferent fibers and lying entirely within the central system. This interposed neuron has been variously called the connector, intercalated, or association neuron Fig.

In most human reflex arcs there are not one but many connector neurons. It is these central neurons which are responsible for the complexity of human behavior. Another of the more important is the recurrent nervous circuit, in which fibers are so linked that impulses set up in one neuron eventually find their way back to the same neuron. These circuits play a role in various activities ranging from simple reflexes to complex psychological processes. Diagrammatic representation of simple spinal reflex arcs. The left half of the diagram shows a two-neuron reflex arc, the right half shows a three-neuron arc.

Arrows indicate direction of conduction. A textbook of neuroanatomy. Now that we have scanned the characteristics of individual neurons and the assembling of neurons into various functional patterns, let us look at some of the grosser anatomical and functional aspects of the central nervous system. As may be seen in Fig. Within the skull, the large cranial cavity, with its capacity of around 1, cc.

Brain size and weight are functions of the age, sex, and weight of the individual. In addition to the protection afforded by the skull, the brain is also guarded by three fibrous coverings, or meninges, known as the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater. These meninges are of psychological importance. As has already been mentioned, the central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain itself may be subdivided into several parts. Discussion of a few subdivisions will contribute to an understanding of development and later-age changes. Let us begin at the top of the brain and work downward.

Cerebral Hemispheres. An aerial view of the brain would show that it is incompletely divided by a longitudinal fissure into two symmetrical halves, the right and left cerebral hemispheres, which together make up the cerebrum. These hemispheres consist of a layer of gray matter called. There are many kinds of nerve fibers — short and long, branched and unbranched. On functional grounds they are usually divided into three kinds: association, commissural, and projection fibers.

Association fibers serve to connect different cortical areas within a hemisphere. Commissural fibers pass from one hemisphere to the other, joining different cortical areas of the two halves. Projection fibers are of two kinds, efferent and. Cross section of the human brain. From Munn, N. The efferent fibers originate in the cerebral cortex and course downward to various subcortical structures and to the spinal cord, while the afferent fibers relay impulses upward from the subcortical centers — chiefly the thalamus — into cortical areas.

Through these three types of fibers, the cerebral hemispheres and lower neural centers are so well interconnected that they can readily function as a unit. The cerebral cortex has numerous infoldings, or convolutions, which give the brain surface an appearance much like that of a walnut.

The elevations are called gyri and the depressions sulci, while the very deep sulci are known as fissures. These sulci and gyri are often used as landmarks or boundaries for various parts of the brain. Perhaps the most. In addition to locating cortical areas by reference to sulci and gyri, a aumber of systems have been devised for locating them numerically. Many investigators have observed that the cortex is not uniform throughout and that certain areas have cellular features which distinguish them from their neighbors.

It has also been observed that these differences are. Schematic drawing of the lateral surface of the left cerebral hemisphere, showing location of the sensorimotor areas and of some Brodmann regions. As new areas were discovered, they were assigned numbers or numbers plus letters. One of the most widely known of such numerical systems is that of Brodmann. This system, illustrated in Fig. Frontal Lobe. As might well be anticipated, the frontal lobe lies in the fore part of the brain, anterior to the central fissure. This lobe is very important in connection with physical and motor development, for the brain strip lying immediately in front of the central fissure — known as the precentral gyrus — is the center for voluntary movements of all parts of the body.

It is usually referred to as the motor area, or Brodmann area 4. The cells of. This pathway descends through the substance of the brain, crossing over at the level of the medulla in some cases lower , so that one side of the body is controlled by the motor cortex of the opposite side of the brain. Destruction of the left motor area, for example, will produce paralysis of the muscles of the right side of the body. Some interesting things have been found as a result of electrostimulation studies of the motor cortex.

It has been demonstrated, for instance, that different regions of this small brain strip control different body parts. If we begin at the top of area 4 and stimulate downward, parts of the body will move in the following order: foot, hip, trunk, arm, fingers, face, and tongue. This sequence is noted in Fig. Just in front of the motor cortex is area 6, the premotor area. Stimulation of this region will elicit body movements of a grosser and more complex nature than those controlled by area 4. It is generally believed that area 6 exerts a controlling influence over the motor cortex, perhaps synthesizing the discrete movements of area 4 into more complex patterns.

The entire cerebral cortex in front of area 6 is often referred to as the frontal "association," or "silent," areas. Since neither sensory nor motor functions have been demonstrated in any part of this region except area 8 eye movements , people have believed from time to time that various psychological processes such as reasoning, memory, and intelligence are localized here. In concluding a review article on functions of the frontal lobes, Hebb pretty well summarizes our state of knowledge on this subject: "No one has proved that a single form of normal behavior exclusive of speech is dependent on this part of the brain or that a clean surgical removal of both frontal lobes has any effect on behavior The loss must, presumably, have some effect but it is hard to demonstrate and its nature is not yet clear.

Parietal Lobe. Behind the central fissure and just above the lateral fissure lies the parietal lobe. In our present context, the most interesting part of this lobe is the postcentral gyrus, otherwise known as areas 3, 1, and 2. This is the somesthetic, or body-sensitivity, area. It should be remembered later as we study sensory functions see Chapter 8 , for impulses reaching areas 3, 1, and 2 form the basis of our experiences of touch, temperature, and muscular movement as well as of taste. Different parts of the body are represented here in approximately the same order as described for area 4 for comparisons see Fig.

Research has demonstrated that the base of the postcentral gyrus not only performs a somesthetic. Occipital Lobe. The occipital lobe occupies the small triangular area in the posterior end of the brain. This relatively small lobe is concerned with visual functions see Chapter 7. Neural impulses originating in the eye are transmitted to the extremity of this pole, known as area Just as the various body parts are represented in orderly fashion on the pre- and postcentral gyri, so the various parts of the retina project to the occipital cortex.

As yet, little is known of the functions of areas 18 and 19, but they are believed to serve a visual-association function. Temporal Lobe. Below the lateral fissure is a long, tongue-shaped structure consisting of three gyri running parallel to the fissure and to each other. This is the temporal lobe. Most important to our study is the gyrus bordering on the lateral fissure, for in the middle of it are areas 41 and 42, the terminal points for auditory nerve fibers originating in the cochlea of the ear see Chapter 7.

Electrical stimulation of this region produces noises variously described as "buzzing," "humming," "knocking," etc.